Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan: Decoded


  • The Government of India has accorded a high priority to the Sanitation Sector.
  • In the 12th Plan an outlay of Rs. 34,377 crores has been provided for rural sanitation as compared to Rs. 6540 crores in the 11th Plan, which is a significantly higher allocation (425% higher than the 11th Plan).
  • The goal is to achieve 100% access to sanitation for all rural households in the Country by 2022 under the NBA.
  • Also as per 12th plan objectives of NBA, 50% of all the Gram Panchayats are to become Nirmal Grams by 2017.     
  • Government of India started the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 to provide sanitation facilities in rural areas.
  • It was simply a supply driven, highly subsidy and infrastructure oriented programme.
  • As a result of deficiencies and low financial allocations, the CRSP had very little impact on the gargantuan problem.
  • The experience of community -driven, awareness-generating campaign based programme in some states and the results of evaluation of CRSP, led to theformulation of Total Sanitation Campaign ( TSC) approach in 1999.
  • The TSC was started as a demand driven, community-led programme with major IEC inputs to make sanitation a felt need of the people.
  • As per the Twelfth Plan Working Group recommendation, the APL-BPL distinction and the very low incentive under the TSC have played havoc with the programme.
  • Many slip-backs in the NGP villages have been attributed to non-availability of water, clearly indicating need to synergize the drinking water and sanitation programme.
  • Owing to above and to accelerate the progress of sanitation in rural areas, The Government of India has revamped the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) as theNirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) in the XIIth Five Year Plan.
  • NBA is currently being implemented in 607 rural districts across the country.
  • NBA envisages covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats.
  • Under NBA, following steps have been taken:
    • A shift from motivating individual household toilet construction to covering whole communities in a Gram Panchayat saturation mode for holistic sanitation outcomes.
    • The scope of providing incentives for individual household latrine units has been widened to cover all APL households who belong to SCs, STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homesteads, physically challenged and women headed households along-with all BPL households.
    • Financial incentive for construction of toilets has been raised for all eligible beneficiaries to Rs. 4600/- from the earlier amount of Rs 3200/-.under NBA.
    • In addition upto Rs. 4500/- can be spent under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme for construction of the toilet.
    • Along-with beneficiary contribution of Rs. 900/-, the total amount of Rs. 10000/- is now available for construction of toilets, which in the case of hilly and difficult areas is Rs. 10500/-.
    • More emphasis on Information Education Communication (IEC) by earmarking 15% of the total outlay of district projects for IEC activities.
    • With a view to give thrust to a new approach towards IEC, the Ministry has launched a Communication and Advocacy Strategy (2012-2017).
    • Conjoint approach with National Rural Drinking Water Programme(NRDWP) to ensure water availability for sanitation in Gram Panchayats.
    • Focused convergence of rural sanitation with associated Ministries including Health, School Education, Women and Child Development with NBA.


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