Government is vigorously pursuing indigenous Research and Development (R&D) in various areas of Science and Technology (S&T) in the country. This has resulted a strong independent base in R&D and significant achievements have been made in the areas of agriculture, nuclear and space science, electronics, Information Technology (IT) and defence. Development of critical technologies in space sector such as indigenous cryogenic engine, air breathing propulsion, microwave remote sensing, deep space tracking antenna system etc. and reactor technology have demonstrated the focused directions of Indian research. Development of new affordable indigenous technologies for public health like vaccine for Japanese Encephalitis, test for molecular diagnosis of Thallassemia, test strips for diabetics, diagnosis kit for TB/H1N1 etc.; development of seed varieties and post harvest technologies for better management; indigenously developed drifter (Pradyu) with INSAT communication deployed in Bay of Bengal etc. are some fruitful results. India’s performance in science sector is promising and impressive in recent years which are evident from the fact that India’s position in research publications has improved from 10th position in 2006 to 9th position in 2010. India has emerged as the third major country in nano science and 5th in the world in Chemistry with respect to scientific publications.
Government has put in several systems to promote S&T in the country and create a scientific temperament among people. These measures include successive increase in plan allocations for Scientific Departments / Agencies, induction of new and attractive fellowships, strengthening infrastructure for R&D, encouraging public-private R&D partnerships, launching mission mode programmes etc. The space science missions including planetary missions, organizing National Level Exhibition and Project Competition under INSPIRE, running an exhibition train called ‘Science Express’, observing National Science Day, organizing regular national workshops etc. provide excellent opportunities in research for the younger generations of the country and create scientific temperament and excitement among people.
The institutions under Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) undertake cutting edge R&D knowledgebase in diverse S&T areas like radio and space physics, oceanography, drugs, genomics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, environmental engineering, information technology etc. CSIR provides significant technological intervention in many areas with regard to societal efforts which include environment, health, drinking water, food, housing, energy, farm and non-farm sectors. As an indicator of development of technology and new products, the rate of commercialization of patents emanated from CSIR laboratories is above 9% while the global average is 3-4%. National Research and Development Corporation (NRDC) functions as a link between scientific organizations and industries for harvesting the fruits of indigenous R&D through development, promotion and transfer to industry. Intellectual Property and Technology Facilitation Centres, University Innovation Facilitation Centres of NRDC are aimed to stimulate technology transfer to industries. The Corporation has transferred approximately 2500 technologies and approximately 4800 license agreements executed which has generated significant revenue and created employment avenues.