By: Suchak Patel The whole political debate related to Green politics centralized to one question: Why international Cooperation is difficult to achieve on environmental issues ? There are mainly three aspects of this Question:-
- Conflict between Collective good and National Interests :-
- Climate change is the classical example of the tragedy of common goods. Clean air, healthy atmosphere is good for all. But tackling global warming increases the Cost for each state.
- In such conditions state like to enjoy the rights but hesitate to pay to maintain it.
- Each state try to get maximum advantage from the environment and like to pay minimum to maintain it.
- Democracy may create further hurdle due to multi party political system and claims to deliver growth.
- Tension between Developed and Developing countries :-
Developed countries Arguments :-
- Countries can not hold for the action of past, target of emission should be set as per current emission.
- Favoured Emission limit as per population instead of per capita emission of gas.
- US Argued that: China giving tough economic competition to US and though being No. 2 economy worldwide and No.1 in terms of population it is out of arena of Kyoto protocol.
- Japan plead that it’s not fair to treat all developed countries on equal line as Japan implemented advanced technology since long time .
- Exclusion of the fast growing countries like Brazil, India and china also opposed by them.
Developing countries Arguments :-
- Growth is necessary to tackle current problems like poverty and to improve health sector, can not afford any restriction for future environmental problem.
- Developed countries already made strong industrial base and strong economy by polluting environment.
- Due to lack of R&D facilities, developing countries can not produce green technology and also can not afford to import Green technology.
Oil Producing countries :-
- Oil producing countries frequently oppose any restriction on the developing countries as it will reduce the demand of oil.
- Developing and developed both group depend upon small group of oil producing countries for their energy supplies. These countries became prosper due to oil, so some scholar argued that it’s oil producers who have to pay highest to tackle environmental problem.
- Economic obstacles :-
- Recent economic development shaped by capitalist modernity.
- In such situation, business tends to get maximum benefits from available resources without being worry about future problems: coal and oil is the best available resource for industry which is prime reason for pollution.